The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is a brief measure of psychological distress. The DASS-21 does NOT provide a diagnosis nor a full psychological assessment, which is best undertaken by your doctor or mental health professional. Your answers are anonymous and will not be collected.


Please read each statement and select the box which indicates how much the statement applied to you over the past week. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any statement.


1.I found it hard to wind down
2.I was aware of dryness of my mouth
3.I couldn’t seem to experience any positive feeling at all
4.I experienced breathing difficulty (e.g., excessively rapid breathing, breathlessness in the absence of physical exertion)
5.I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things
6.I tended to over-react to situations
7.I experienced trembling (e.g., in the hands)
8.I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy
9.I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make a fool of myself
10.I felt that I had nothing to look forward to
11.I found myself getting agitated
12.I found it difficult to relax
13.I felt down-hearted and blue
14.I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with what I was doing
15.I felt I was close to panic
16.I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything
17.I felt I wasn’t worth much as a person
18.I felt that I was rather touchy
19.I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physical exertion (e.g., sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat)
20.I felt scared without any good reason
21.I felt that life was meaningless